In The 13th Century it is evident that limitations in the use of Christian names only must have led to a considerable amount of confusion, and this no doubt had some influence on the fairly general adoption of surnames.
Prior to the adoption of surnames one would establish his identity as \"Tom o\' Dick o\' Mary\'s\" meaning:- Tom son of Dick son of Mary. The method of adopting surnames could be defined into four general classifications:-
1 - First Name of the ancestor of his father or mother, e.g. John Richards - John son of Richard.
2 - Localities or places of origin where ancestors originated, e.g. John Hillside - John - dweller on the side of the hill.
3 - Occupation or status of the ancestor, e.g. John Smith John the Smithy.
4 - Nicknames descriptive of the ancestor\'s face, figure, temper, morals, tastes, clothes, etc. e.g. John Longfellow - John - being a fellow that is tall and thin.
By the late 14th Century most surnames had been recognised and the custom of keeping to a single hereditary surname became a general practice.
The Irish family name SCOTT is derived from the Gaelic Albanac meaning \'an irishman\'. They emigrated to Scotlan in the 14th, 15th & 16th centuries and are represented by the Highlanders & Hebrideans of Scotlan (the Lowlanders being mostly of English stock, & the Orcadians & Chetlanders being of Norse stock). It will be remembered that the Scots had originally come from Ireland, being particularly common in Ulster & Dublin. They spread gradually from Galloway across the Lowlands, but in the 11th century, the name was already used for the whole country of Scotland, so that although north of the border the name may have implied a nice reacial distinction, as far as the Englishmen were concerned during the surname period, a Scot mean very much what it does now. The borders of England & Scotland were never well defined in the Norman period, & there the two races met & mingled, each man very conscious of his race. They made little impact on English surnames until the 18th century, when they overflowed from their wild hills to sprinkle not only England but the world with a scattering of Scotts.
Once everyone was known by a single name. As the population increased, people travelled & mixed, found others with the same names & overcame the confusion by taking an extra name to identify themselves. These were adopted in accordance with fairly general principles. Thus, a man named John, who was Irish, might be known as \"John (the) Scott\" - \"John Scott\", in order to distinguish himself from others of the sanme christian name. In the course of time the cognomen became hereditary in what we now term surnames, ceasing to have any reference to the bearer\'s place of origin or occupation.
The family Scott are descended from the Uchtred filius Scot who appears as witness in an inquisition of Earl David circa 1124.
Other recordings mention Herricus de (or le) Scotte witnessing a charter by Earl David, circa 1195-8. Magister Isaac Scotus witnessed charters by Roger, bishop of St. Andrews, before 1202. On the death of David, earl of Huntington in 1219, \"he was succeeded by his surviving son, afterwards known by the name of John the Scot, earl of Chester\". Ade le Scot held a croft in the vill of Golyn, around 1221, & John le Escot was burgess of Berwick in 12636. Alisaundre Scot of Perthayk, Lanarkshire, Henry le Scot, burgess of Edinburgh, John le Scot, burgess of Haddington, Michael le Scot of Linlithgowshire, Wautier le Scot of Peebleshire, & Wautier le Scot of Edinburgshire, were among those who rendered homage in 1296.
Richard le Scot of Murthoxton, who also rendered homage in 1296, appears to have been the first ancestor of the ducal house of Buccleuch of whom there is any definite record. Michael Lescot of Fife, who agreed to serve Edward 1 of England in foreign service in 1297, is mentioned again as Michael le Scot. The Scots became \'of Balwearie\' only by marriage with the heiress of the estate between 1260-80. The double \'t\' in Scott is now universal.
Later biographical recordings include Lieutenant General Winfield Scott of Virginia whose grandfather emigrated to America after the Scottish battle of Culloden in 1746. The great-great-grandson of Sir Reginal Scott settled at Ashfardun, Long Island after being sent over the seas by the Cromwellians. He lived for a short time in New England, but later settled in Long Island having bought, it is said, one-third of the whole island.
Duncan Campbell Scott was born at Ottawa on August 2, 1862 & died there on December 19, 1947.